Why it matters: Good Health and Well-Being. Infographic: Good Health and Well-Being. Facts and figures Goal 3 targets Links. Facts and figures.
Introduction and summary
Child health 17, fewer children die each day than in , but more than five million children still die before their fifth birthday each year. Since , measles vaccines have averted nearly Despite determined global progress, an increasing proportion of child deaths are in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Four out of every five deaths of children under age five occur in these regions. Children born into poverty are almost twice as likely to die before the age of five as those from wealthier families. Children of educated mothers—even mothers with only primary schooling—are more likely to survive than children of mothers with no education.
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More women are receiving antenatal care. In developing regions, antenatal care increased from 65 per cent in to 83 per cent in Only half of women in developing regions receive the recommended amount of health care they need. When construction of the dam officially began in , it was the largest engineering project in China.
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At the time of its completion in , it was the largest dam structure in the world. Submerging large areas of the Qutang, Wu, and Xiling gorges for some km miles upstream, the dam has created an immense deepwater reservoir allowing oceangoing freighters to navigate 2, km 1, miles inland from Shanghai on the East China Sea to the inland city of Chongqing. Those units, along with 2 additional generators, gave the dam the capacity to generate 22, megawatts of electricity, making it the most productive hydroelectric dam in the world. The dam also was intended to protect millions of people from the periodic flooding that plagues the Yangtze basin, although just how effective it has been in this regard has been debated.
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First discussed in the s by Chinese Nationalist Party leaders, the idea for the Three Gorges Dam was given new impetus in when Chinese leader Mao Zedong ordered feasibility studies of a number of sites. Detailed planning for the project began in Its proponents insisted it would control disastrous flooding along the Yangtze, facilitate inland trade, and provide much-needed power for central China, but the dam was not without its detractors. Criticisms of the Three Gorges project began as soon as the plans were proposed and continued through its construction.
Key problems included the danger of dam collapse, the displacement of some 1.
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There were also fears—some of which were borne out—that human and industrial waste from cities would pollute the reservoir and even that the huge amount of water impounded in the reservoir could trigger earthquakes and landslides. Some Chinese and foreign engineers argued that a number of smaller and far-cheaper and less-problematic dams on the Yangtze tributaries could generate as much power as the Three Gorges Dam and control flooding equally well.
Construction of those dams, they maintained, would enable the government to meet its main priorities without the risks. Because of these problems, work on the Three Gorges Dam was delayed for nearly 40 years as the Chinese government struggled to reach a decision to carry through with plans for the project.
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President Jiang Zemin did not accompany Li to the official inauguration of the dam in , and the World Bank refused to advance China funds to help with the project, citing major environmental and other concerns. Family planning enables people to make informed choices about their sexual and reproductive health. Family planning represents an opportunity for women to pursue additional education and participate in public life, including paid employment in non-family organizations. Additionally, having smaller families allows parents to invest more in each child.
Children with fewer siblings tend to stay in school longer than those with many siblings. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to have preterm or low birth-weight babies.
Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
Babies born to adolescents have higher rates of neonatal mortality. Many adolescent girls who become pregnant have to leave school. This has long-term implications for them as individuals, their families and communities. Family planning is key to slowing unsustainable population growth and the resulting negative impacts on the economy, environment, and national and regional development efforts.
It is important that family planning is widely available and easily accessible through midwives and other trained health workers to anyone who is sexually active, including adolescents.
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Midwives are trained to provide where authorised locally available and culturally acceptable contraceptive methods. Other trained health workers, for example community health workers, also provide counselling and some family planning methods, for example pills and condoms. For methods such as sterilization, women and men need to be referred to a clinician. Contraceptive use has increased in many parts of the world, especially in Asia and Latin America, but continues to be low in sub-Saharan Africa.
Regionally, the proportion of women aged 15—49 reporting use of a modern contraceptive method has risen minimally or plateaued between and In Africa it went from Use of contraception by men makes up a relatively small subset of the above prevalence rates. The modern contraceptive methods for men are limited to male condoms and sterilization vasectomy. Reasons for this include:. The unmet need for contraception remains too high.
This inequity is fuelled by both a growing population, and a shortage of family planning services. In Africa, In Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean — regions with relatively high contraceptive prevalence — the levels of unmet need are