The vision documents indicate it will remain strong and probably be intensified. It bears the risk of more robbing of innovation initiatives of on-campus education. Although it is not stated in the vision documents as such, I sense that something big is going on. I imagine that the university will use the coming period to prepare for a major transformation of its education. Where Bachelor education may transform in student-centred education through a blend of personalised online learning and on-campus experiential learning.
Where online Master degree programmes may transform into a delivery for students off campus, anywhere in the world, in addition to the traditional research Master programmes on campus. And where professional education for lifelong learners may grow into hybrid formats of online learning with bursts of experiential learning in special boot camps. The university considers open education as its contribution to how educational institutions deliver their public mission. Teaching staff is increasingly stimulated to develop more online courses and publish all materials under an open license.
Indeed there are many benefits and opportunities in sharing educational materials on institutional level. In this area I may be conservative. I miss any incentive for the individual lecturers to make their unique and outstanding educational materials, including intellectual property, freely available to anybody in the world, while taking the risk of falling victim to charlatans who take advantage of the unique content in a new market.
I do see another potential benefit of Open Educational Resources though: fewer commercial study books for the students and fewer costly off-the-shelf eLearning tools and software suites. It is going to reduce the dependence on the commercial publishers. In the engineering profession, mono-disciplinary expert thinking will shift to more multi- and interdisciplinary systems thinking. Collaboration and multi- and inter-disciplinary thinking that cross the borders of engineering become increasingly important in research, innovation and design of solutions for complex societal and technological problems.
The new vision reads that one of the driving forces for change at TU Delft will be a shift from mostly individual and mono-disciplinary to more multi- and interdisciplinary teamwork in education. The vision announces that the university will create new opportunities for new multi- and interdisciplinary Master degree programmes. It will require a major mind shift and upskilling of staff, higher management and programme bodies. Students will be inspired to collaborate in interdisciplinary team projects, jointly with other engineering and non-engineering disciplines e.
They will stimulate community building and move towards more outward-facing curricula. In case the university succeeds in implementing collaborative interdisciplinary projects and challenge-based education at scale to large student cohorts within the Bachelor and Master curricula, many of the vision statements I wrote in my report pp. Curricula will then transform from subject-based learning into needs-related problem- and more practice-based learning. It means that intelligent systems will be able to discover patterns not easily seen, and improve at predicting future results.
There can be no doubt that any engineer shall be data literate, i. But data literacy is only part of the game. Also technological literacy will get new accents. It will be crucial for every engineer, no matter the discipline, to gain a grounding in computer languages and the basics of computer sciences. The inclusion of these Industry 4. Master programmes train students to become an expert in technical analysis through individual intellectual efforts in ever smaller corners of their discipline. It leads to a lack in holistic thinking and relationship skills and unintentionally prevents talented students from reaching their leadership potential.
Centre for Engineering Education activity in may for instance be used to guide the choice of personalised study paths. These are particularly orientated towards future professional needs. More conservative programmes may provide study paths that prepare for the role of research engineer, technical engineer or entrepreneurial engineer, or for roles that distinguish themselves by their achievement, i. Best product performance quality , Best cost operational process , or Best value customer intimacy.
More progressive programmes might explore study paths that match with different types of engineering behaviour in future society, without being connected to specific products or activities currently being explored by the Delft team of 4TU. Centre for Engineering Education. If we want to achieve change, staff will have to change first. Indeed, lifelong learning also applies to teaching staff.
They have to routinely update their pedagogy and develop new learning environments based on proven practices. Educational achievements have been highly undervalued in Delft career promotions since many decades. In the new vision TU Delft presents the aim to flip the existing culture of promotion on the basis of academic excellence read research. In the period the aim is to create a culture and structure in which teaching excellence and leadership in education will be weighed on par with research excellence, and where career paths will be developed for academic staff who have an accent on education.
I wholeheartedly support this initiative see my post a bout university career frameworks and hope it will spark a renewed interest for innovating and experimenting in on-campus education. This could be a driving force for change with high impact. How long will it take to flip the existing academic culture which is loosely coupled and grown in a bottom-up culture with great autonomy and freedom? It will require an enormous perseverance over the next 10 to 15 years. TU Delft faces interesting challenges to remain an active and engaged change-maker in the landscape of 21st century higher engineering education.
The university has always strongly focused on equipping students with deep discipline-based knowledge and left the development of the durable and wider professional skills to the early years of the professional career. But future engineer business increasingly needs talents that combine deep disciplinary expertise with social, political, and economic capabilities, who are able to connect the dots, think holistically, and are culturally agile.
The most important force that will drive educational change in will be interdisciplinary thinking, also contained in challenge-based education.
EdTech Should Change the Way Teachers Teach
The Delft vision leaves it vague if only disciplines of engineering sciences and technology will be combined, or that wider social, political and economic aspects will also be taken into account. Such perspective would connect engineering education to the real-world and transfer knowledge to real-life context. A shift to more interdisciplinary teaching and learning can only be successful with open-minded staff who are open to upskilling and prepared to build interfaculty collaborations or cross-university networks in the domain of engineering education rather than research in technical disciplines.
This force of interdisciplinary thinking could very well converge with a couple of other forces for change, such as the inclusion of knowledge and skills that prepare for Industry 4. For many teaching staff such radical ideas will require a step change towards cross-faculty cooperation and acceptance of top-down institution-wide change. Leadership by higher management, ambition by programme bodies and flexibility by Boards of Examiners are the prime enablers for such changes. The developments in online education and open educational resources will for sure have impact on the evolution of the on-campus education.
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In 10 to 15 years time it is probably way too expensive and time consuming for young students to learn basic content that can also be picked up online through personal learning. Thus TU Delft will prove it earns the reputation of an active and engaged change-maker in the emerging landscape of 21st century engineering education, also in the next decade. Updated strategies and visions build upon existing values and culture. In their vision TU Delft aims to educate students who have the ambition to make the most of their study period and develop themselves academically as well as personally.
No longer does it focus on training students with an excellent academic performance alone. Although this sounds as an interesting shift,it has the risk to deteriorate in a rat-race study culture for students who strive for the best career perspectives, taking on too much. They are worried about the higher stress factors during the study, a steep rise of burn-outs for students and the expectation that academic studies will increasingly educate zombies rather than critical well-educated citizens. Unfortunately TU Delft seems to be in line with the above. The vision documents read as if the the societal engagement and development of durable skills are left up to the student and are mainly placed outside the engineering curricula.
Students have to take control of their own development and learning process. Every university should equip its students for the social milieu. It seems a poor job when a university more or less enforces its students to participate in extracurricular activities social, sport or cultural activities in the city, student clubs, student project teams for self-development, in order to acquire the most essential and durable skills they will need in the future profession to survive and thrive.
The professional workplace is the environment in which the impact of technological change is felt most strongly.
Adapting Engineering Education to Change | How much, how fast, in what way?
Universities should therefore address those strategies employers are seeking to accomplish and ways technology changes the shape of the industries. Students have to experience the real world of engineering and get a taste of genuine research, engineering and design by learning-by-doing, meet their academic role models from universities and practitioners from industry. That requires a strong and enduring partnership between industry and academic staff to ensure that curricula are not only aligned with the latest developments in research and science, but also in engineering practice. The TU Delft Vision on Education or the chapter Students and Education of the Strategic Framework address the relations with industry or the enhancement of employability skills in engineering education to a minimum.
May be they are already sufficient? Particularly in lifelong learning models of the future, I expect that universities will have to co-design curricula and courses in close parnership with employers and students. This will demand much stronger ties with engineering business than exist nowadays. It is also common practice that the templates for recruiting academic staff are getting narrower and narrower see post about future trends and developments in Europe. Taking this all together, I cannot help expecting that the current scarce opportunities for people with a non-academic background to bring their experience, tacit knowledge, role models and achievements in engineering practice to the classroom, will diminish even further in the coming years.
Which is the opposite of what I expect students need to integrate the real-world experienes with academic learning, and prepare for their future profession and employability. My vision is a loud call to make subjects like globalisation, diversity, world cultures, cultural agility, global ethics, leadership, business acumen, empathy and emotional intelligence equally important as maths and engineering sciences.
Indeed, the TU Delft vision documents expect that the students will master these competences at graduation. But where will they learn them? The vision documents do not mention any driving force that would give these skills a more prominent place in the curricula. The first two are anchor points for future curricular structures and subject matter. The habitat of almost all engineering graduates is in innovation, where understanding the customer and truly care about their experience is essential.
It strikes me that most Delft Masters fully focus on the acquisition of deep discipline-based knowledge and research, They forget about innovation. At best, creativity, entrepreneurial and customer thinking, enterprise systems engineering, etcetera are in the margin of the Master curricula, but often absent at all and available in extracurricular activities.
The same applies to employability. Young graduates who have never been in contact with industry, are insufficiently prepared for the world of work. The vision documents miss supportive statements about employability skills for education and students. It does not necessarily mean they are not part of faculty policies. But the narrative tells that employability, like innovation, will not become a driving force for educational change in Delft in the coming six years.
This could turn into a risk when employers become dissatisfied with the work-readiness of the graduates and favour graduates from more interdisciplinary, practice-based approaches with stacked learning models. It is something in which other universities may be moving ahead of TU Delft.
The TU Delft vision documents address the importance of creating a sense of belonging on the campus for staff and students. The modern campus has to offer added value in attractive learning spaces that evoke the teaching staff to implement effective ways of teaching and coaching, and support students in their collaborative and applied learning process, by enabling a transfer of knowledge to the contexts of real life.
I expect the nature of our education, with applied learning and hands-on work in makerspaces and research labs, will remain a leading element on the future campus.
Whether or not the new campus vision will develop into a driving force for educational change, very much depends on its content that is still to be defined. The vision documents are high level guidelines about what kind of university TU Delft strives to be and what and how they foresee the preparation of the graduates for fast-changing professional careers in engineering.
Since decades the university has focused on equipping students with deep discipline-based knowledge and left the development of the wider professional skills and the preparation for good employability to the early years of their professional career.
It remains to be seen whether that is the right choice for preparing graduates for a future, where artificial intelligence will increasingly take over routine and non-routine cognitive tasks from the engineering professionals. I foresee a need to educate our students to think and act in ways that cannot be imitated by intelligent machines, and to prepare them to do what machines cannot.
We have to liberate the students from career models that will soon be outdated. And have to complement our traditional education that focuses on the mastery of deep technological knowledge and understanding of what technology can do, with more experiential learning to understand what technology cannot do. If you think that the above quote comes from our recent university documents, you are mistaken.
If you think that this paper relates to higher education, you are mistaken — it is meant for education from pre-school to higher education! They will need to respect and appreciate the ideas, perspectives and values of others. And they will need to cope with failure and rejection, and to move forward in the face of adversity. In such a context there are no instructors on the one hand, and learners on the other, but everyone should be considered a learner: students, teachers, school managers, parents and communities.
What caught my attention most were his elaborations on knowledge and competence development. And it is through the richness or paucity of connections that we can evaluate whether we have deeply understood, or developed a surface understanding of the concept. Which kinds of connections to make, which ones are likely to be most helpful, and how to support the making or scaffolding of connections, is surely the task of the teacher.
Coming back to the initial quote, this outline is for the whole of education, and it emphasizes a broad personal development, which in addition to connected knowledge are also ideals in our engineering education. At the same time we know how difficult this is to make dreams come true, also in education. If we want to make a contribution in higher education, do we subscribe to these ideals, and how can we start to operationalise them?
This post has been written by my colleague Birgit Pepin, 4TU. CEE 4tucee. The post and the OECD report are very much in line with my thinking about the necessary changes in engineering education, as you can read in the posts of my blog and my book. In education we forget to pay attention to what technological innovation is and how that unfolds over time in real-life engineering projects. The reason for this deficiency, he said, is that no complete body of knowledge exists that is grounded on research of technological innovation practice.
Frido Smulders, puzzling the audience how to teach the rapidly increasing amount of theoretical and experiential knowledge private photo. Or they generate new knowledge or transform fundamental knowledge into applied knowledge by doing research. But students donot learn how to develop technology that has not yet reached the required level of maturity but is needed to develop and build an innovative product or process.
He illustrated the deficiency with the first planes that used composite materials. Engineers are responsible for designing innovative products, and also developing new technological knowledge. So where do we teach it? How do we find a balance between the growing amounts of scientific theories and engineering practice?
Should not this also be contained in the CDIO framework? How should we teach the students to learn about the process of technology innovation? Smulders brought the idea forward to bring examples of technology innovations into the classroom that have gone through many iterative cycles of trial and error in science and engineering practice, with the involvement of both engineering and social disciplines. His message was to complement engineering classes and design and research projects with an explicit mindset of continuous discovery, of success, failure and iteration. With a narrative of technological innovation that spans the full range of what happened, yet is generic enough to transfer to technological innovation processes in general.
Paying explicit attention to what engineers experienced, assumed, predicted, tested, bread-boarded, forgot or overlooked, and how they combatted the frustration, hesitation and resistance to change on the shop floor. Such storylines would enable the students to develop planning scenarios for the development of new engineering knowledge that is urgently needed for modeling, simulating, analysing or manufacturing new products and systems that are already on the drawing table or are being engineered.
Where anticipating risk and conscious risk taking is extremely important. His slides were food for thought for many, see also the video-recording. At this point, we tend to teach as much as we know, but with the passage of time, we have come to know too much to teach, so basically we have to revert to another system that helps students to learn the basics, but also learn how to specialise later on in their career, and embark on a road of lifelong learning. Centre for Engineering Education, ran a workshop together with Clement Fortin Skoltech on university career frameworks that balance teaching performance and research achievement.
A video recording of the session is available here. The framework is related to the progress of an international working group of 12 universities from all over the world, coordinated by the Royal Academy of Engineering project and chaired by Ruth Graham see website. In many universities management and staff wish to restore the balance between education and research in appraisal cycles and career paths, but few see how this can be achieved.
They aim at two professorships per Faculty with an emphasis on education. The educational research they are doing has to be at associate professor level. Each Faculty shall also have leaders in teaching and learning, as well as scholarly teachers with senior university teaching qualification Level 3. Thus innovation and research in teaching will really count in the promotion to Associate or Full Professorship.
Also in the Tenure Track training programme more emphasis will be put on teaching performance. See also the UToday post1 and post2 in Dutch. Pepin of TU Eindhoven explained their system of Advanced University Teaching Innovation Qualification AUTIQ , where achievements in educational innovation and research projects provide incentives for university teachers and count in career promotions.
Their emphasis is to stimulate continuous innovation in education and publish the results to the outside world. Fortin of Skoltech showed the documents where the change in career path development had been approved in The implementation in the academic culture is just starting: they are currently going through the first promotion cases. Commitment in teaching and proven involvement in educational innovation are a requirement to achieve tenure.
All Assistant Professors have to write an impact statement that describes their personal impact on education and innovation. For a promotion to Associate Professor criteria of refereed publications in educational conferences and journals have to be met, together with validated contributions to educational conferences and initiatives that demonstrate proven leadership and impact on university education at national and international level, which is also the Level 4 of the career framework.
Not all universities are equally enthusiastic about this Career Framework for University Teaching. Meanwhile educational achievements remain highly undervalued in the Delft career promotions and, as a direct consequence, the continual professionalisation for teaching staff has more or less come to a standstill, as already described in a my September post about the disposable fulltime lecturers.
Centre for Engineering Education are a member. In the freezing and snowy Saturday morning most of us took the special guided tour of Moscow private photo. The participants of the workshop about the Career Framework for University Teaching expressed their hope that this new career framework will soon become the new normal. Not as a lip service, but as a basis to foster education innovation and educational research.
Everybody agreed that research universities will have to make deep change. The universities shall demonstrate courage in changing the rules for awarding incentives and funding dramatically. Only then they will transform the academic culture because also academics go where the money flows and conform to the awarding and funding rules, because these rules are usually based on the vision and a strategy of the institution.
We have to stop debating and have the courage to transform the system. A solid career framework that still leaves a lot of freedom to the university organisation, is at hand! Seldom did freezing weather in the Netherlands start so late in the season. Friday February 23rd the meteorological office forecast Siberian cold air to be blown over the Netherlands. It would almost certainly result in an opportunity to skate on canals and other waterways in less than a week time.
Daytime temperatures dropped to -5 and centigrade, nighttime temperatures five degrees lower. The windchill by the strong wind from the east made it feel bitterly cold. Their forecast was right. Within one week time hundreds of thousands Dutchmen skated on the waterways and lakes, even on the canals in the city centre of Amsterdam and Delft. Just on two days, Friday and Saturday. There is little time to contemplate on whether you want to take a day off and skate: you have to be agile and immediately rearrange your agenda to create space for some hours of skating fun.
There is no time to think twice! One of the main canals in my village Saturday afternoon March 3, private photo. For foreigners it is difficult to imagine what influence freezing weather has on many Dutch citizens. It must be deep in our DNA. Little has changed. Out-and-out village entertainment anno ! Some things did change though.
Where I learnt from my parents to assess the quality and thickness of the ice layer on the basis of the weather and the local conditions such as flows in the water, at present many people seem to have a blind trust in simulation models that predict the ice thickness growth in the waterways, on the basis of air temperature and wind speed and probably a couple of other parameters. But these models cannot reflect local conditions of depth and flows of water and local effects of the wind.
Where I used to trust on my intuition and good sense, most people today rely on apps that give alerts for weather conditions, slippery roads, as well as ice safety. We rapidly forget to learn from experience and refrain from trials and experiments and no longer use our human sensors. Since I had taken a day off to skate and was ready to go, I had no option but to test the ice floor myself.
The ice floor was solid as rock, black, hard and super smooth, probably five to eight centimeter thick, with the exception of one blowhole where ten moorhens were swimming. We picked up our skates from home and skated over a one-kilometer long track back and forth. With the wind behind us we felt energized! But the massive headwind took all energy we had. It did not take long till our skating was noticed and we were accompanied by about 20 villagers.
Skating in Botshol, a ha nature reserve where peat moorlands, reed-land, swamp forest take centre stage private photo. Saturday morning we drove with my wife, son and daughter to our favourite skating place, the nature reserve Botshol, 8 km from our home. It is a not so well-known reserve of peat moorlands, reed-lands and swamp-forest and is usually only accessible by rowing boats outside the breeding season, and occasionally in wintertime by skating.
But this time caution was required when skating. Ice was excellent but contained a number really big blowholes. Following the traces of the other skaters made it easy to find a safe route. Skating over a 1. A typical feature you observe while skating in the peat moorlands are the bubbles of swamp gas that are trapped in the ice floor.
They are visible as hundreds or thousands of thin discs, small or large that are located at different depths in the ice floor, filled with swamp gas, or oxygen released by water plants. We are harder workers, shorter sleepers and faster thinkers, and expect the world to offer us what we want, when we want it.
But wintertime on-demand is not available and only lasts a couple of days. There is no time to think twice. For me skating on canals in the polders and reed-lands is the best and most beautiful activity to slow down and take a moment to myself. When we returned home the GPS tracker app showed Friday and Saturday we had skated a total distance of 60 kilometer.
Our minds are refreshed. The skates are waiting for sharpening, to be ready for next time. Ready to go! It made the meeting special: Christmas trees, an abundance of illumination and decorations in the streets and shopping malls, ice sculptures, a skating rink on the Red Square, very few tourists and a winterly snow-covered city. The venue of the meeting was a temporary Mendeleev building of the Skoltech Institute of Science and Technology.
You get an impression of the lively atmosphere and discussions at the meeting in this video on YouTube. The main campus building is still under construction but was accessible for us in a special guided tour. Of course it had been a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to get the freedom to align the development of the educational programmes with the design and construction of the building and learning spaces, and recruit and shape the academic staff, right from the start. With clear expectations from the stakeholders to achieve economic development, innovation and entrepreneurship, exchange knowledge, and be a catalyst for education, research and innovation by positioning the university as the pivot in an ecosystem of industries, start-ups and institutes that are developed in parallel.
The tour to the new campus showed us what he meant. The Skolkovo Technopark is the biggest technology park of Russia. During our visit the many construction cranes showed it is being developed, with the new university building as the main pivot. Crawley explained how he had used CDIO as the leading framework not only for the curricula, but also for the physical building and the whole set-up of the Skoltech institute, where talent development education , discovery research and creation innovation are integrated in one comprehensive programme.
Interdisciplinary thinking and collaboration, entrepreneurial education and developing prototypes for proof of concepts are the main enablers for integrated learning. Learning-by-doing has been made a key asset in the Master programmes, and learning-by-teaching in the PhD studies. PhD students deliver many student-led courses for Master students.
In the second keynote Irina Arzhanova of the National Training Foundation discussed the impact of demographic change on Russian higher education. She addressed the reforms in Russian higher education with respect to quality assurance and accreditation, staff professionalisation and student mobility, merely following European standards and legislation.
Skoltech Vice President for Real Estate and Facilities, Gary Wentworth, took the attendees on a tour of the massive campus , which is set to open later this year. The circumference of the annular building is meters. Within the ring-shaped building there will be several well equipped laboratories, an auditorium, classrooms, maker- and lab spaces for research and education that are interconnected by broad interlocking rings and outdoor yards where people meet and collaborate.
Twelve hundred construction workers are on the site to complete the building. Construction works at the main campus building of Skoltech private photo. The tour inspired the attendees. In the conference coffee breaks Ingrid Burke of Skoltech interviewed the speakers and other attendees to reflect on the value of the CDIO framework and community. The full article with interviews is available at the Skoltech website. It all began in when industry giants like Boeing and the American Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology rallied in favour of engineering educational reform.
It was about this time that Crawley entered the scene. But word of the initiative spread, attracting the attention of universities far and wide. The standards strive to define the philosophy of the CDIO programme, and to help educators implement educational reform. They fall into five categories:. Malmqvist does not believe that any of the principles is particularly superior. Rather, he believes it is imperative to implement them as a set in its entirety. When we have worked with a set of standards, we have gotten a systematic approach to designing our programmes, and that takes into consideration many things.
The hard thing is not to get people agree that the CDIO principles are good principles; the hard thing is to convince people to go to work in the morning and do it. My next blog post will discuss the contributions of 4TU. From the presentation I understand that the rethinking of the university strategy focuses on the impact of six driving forces:.
They lead to the following three leading directions for the transformation:. As educators, it's our job to stimulate the intellectual development of children, and, in this era, it's simply not enough to operate on the axis of color-blindness. To truly engage students, we must reach out to them in ways that are culturally and linguistically responsive and appropriate, and we must examine the cultural assumptions and stereotypes we bring into the classroom that may hinder interconnectedness.
To engage students effectively in the learning process, teachers must know their students and their academic abilities individually, rather than relying on racial or ethnic stereotypes or prior experience with other students of similar backgrounds. Many teachers, for example, admire the perceived academic prowess and motivation of Asian American students and fail to recognize how even a "positive" stereotype isn't positive if it presses students into molds not built for them individually.
Hear elementary school teacher, Diane Holtam, speak about how she works with other teachers to disabuse stereotypic notions of Asian American students' abilities. Curriculum, in its most simple, essential, commonly understood form, is the "what" of education. It is crucial to academic performance and essential to culturally responsive pedagogy. Even the most "standard" curriculum decides whose history is worthy of study, whose books are worthy of reading, which curriculum and text selections that include myriad voices and multiple ways of knowing, experiencing, and understanding life can help students to find and value their own voices, histories, and cultures.
Hear high school creative writing teacher, Foster Dickson, talk about text selection and the importance of a diverse selection of authors. Learning Lakota For a high school on South Dakota's Rosebud Reservation, culturally responsive curriculum is proving a hefty antidote to the violence, poverty and growing cultural disconnect hindering student success. Teachers are often a young immigrant's first regular, ongoing contact with someone outside their home community and culture. It's a relationship that can provide the emotional scaffolding necessary to cross the linguistic and cultural divide between country of origin and country of residency.
With a hearty mix of creativity, cultural acumen, and professional expertise, teachers can help English language learners acquire language skills more rapidly — and foster inclusion in the school community. Listen to elementary teacher, Diane Holtam, talk about bridging the gap between her newly arrived immigrant students' home language and English.
Breaking the Prejudice Habit by Patricia G. Nene faces her fears about doing math and overcomes them. Polychrome Publishing Corporation. ISBN She also wondered if teachers were adding to the problem by adjusting their lessons to accommodate shorter attention spans. Molina-Porter said. Scholars who study the role of media in society say no long-term studies have been done that adequately show how and if student attention span has changed because of the use of digital technology. But there is mounting indirect evidence that constant use of technology can affect behavior, particularly in developing brains, because of heavy stimulation and rapid shifts in attention.
Kristen Purcell, the associate director for research at Pew, acknowledged that the findings could be viewed from another perspective: that the education system must adjust to better accommodate the way students learn, a point that some teachers brought up in focus groups themselves. Purcell said. The surveys also found that many teachers said technology could be a useful educational tool.
And they said such tools had made students more self-sufficient researchers. There was little difference in how younger and older teachers perceived the impact of technology. The Pew research found that 76 percent of teachers believed students had been conditioned by the Internet to find quick answers. For her part, Ms.
Baldwin said she refused to lower her expectations or shift her teaching style to be more entertaining.