The LF had been in use for radiotelegraphy till around ; however, it has not gradually been in use for the purpose as it required a large-scale antenna and transmitting device and the high frequency communication has been largely developed. The LF is partially utilized for the sound broadcasting in Europe, Africa, and some other regions, while in Japan, it is used for Loran C stations for radio navigation, navigation beacons for vessels and aircrafts, and standard frequency and time signal stations providing information on the standard frequency and time signal.
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The MF radio wave has a wavelength between m and m, and it propagates by reflecting on the E layer of the ionosphere formed at the altitude of about km. Because of MF dario wave's characteristics ensuring stable propagation in a long distance it is suitable for sound broadcasting.
While transmission of MF radio wave requires a large-scale transmitter and antenna, only a simple type of receiver is necessary for its reception. The HF radio wave has a wavelength between 10m and m, and it can travel to the opposite side of the planet by repeating reflecting on the F layer of the ionosphere formed at the altitude of about km the ground surface. As it enables a long-distance communication, it is utilized for ocean vessel communication, aeronautical communication, international broadcasting, and amateur radio communications.
The VHF radio wave has a wavelength between 1m and 10m, and it propagates straightforwardly not reflecting the ionosphere, while it reaches behind mountains or buildings to an extent. As it can carry more information than the high frequency does, it is utilized for the VHF TV broadcasting, FM broadcasting, or mobile communications.
Radio propagation - Wikipedia
The obtained results are plotted in Figs 3 and 4 , respectively, as a function of the frequency. The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a circular tunnel have been performed and the results confirm the existence of a waveguide effect strongly related to the antenna positions. The cutoff frequency was calculated and three different types of frequency ranges were characterized. The numerical results presented here indicate that the different values of m and n modes.
This work enable us to distinguish three different ranges of frequency, characterized by three different propagation mechanisms. Licensee IntechOpen. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Vitaliy Zhurbenko.
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Downloaded: Introduction The problem of guided wave propagation in a wave guide with imperfectly reflecting boundaries arises in several applications, such as propagation in mine tunnels and in screened surface wave guides. Geometrical structure and basic equations The concrete tunnel is practically of finite thickness.
Determination of the attenuation constant We consider the circular —waveguide model of the tunnel. The cutoff frequency is 20 MHz corresponding to approximately a tunnel shaped as a circular cylinder, inside it a wave is propagating in the T E 11 mode.
Propagation of Short Radio Waves
Conclusion The propagation of electromagnetic waves in a circular tunnel have been performed and the results confirm the existence of a waveguide effect strongly related to the antenna positions. More Print chapter. The Institution of Engineering and Technology is one of the world's leading professional societies for the engineering and technology community.
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